20150205: SANS Pen Test 2015 Challenge #ShmooCon - writeup

tags: netsec, ctf, sans, pentest, shmoocon, 2015
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Winning entry


    • passwd(/open_this_to_win.7z) = concat(Build It, Belay It, and Bring It On/, 0000c15998, 3e9cd9ea80d80606, iamnumbersix)
    • which extracts The Phrase That Pays
    • …
      Anyway, here's the last part of the challenge. Send an email with a brief write-up of how you solved each question to shmoochallenge2015@sans.org by February 28, 2015.
      Use the following subject for the email: "The narwhal bacons at midnight."

    Alice has sent Bob an encrypted file. Find it, decrypt it, and find the secret inside.
    Look in the alice.pcap file to answer this question.
    Hint: Alice is often quite chatty with Bob, and phrases she references could be
    useful to use as passwords (or passphrases). You won't need to use wordlists,
    mutation, or brute-force of any kind to decrypt the encrypted file.
    • load given alice.pcap into Wireshark
    • apply bpf filter for SMB NT Create AndX Response pkts:
      (smb.cmd == 0xa2) && (smb.flags.response == 1)
    • reveals one of the archives as promised, ie. another_message.7z
    • follow TCP stream to find the raw dump
    • locate the magic # for 7z: '7' (or \x37), 'z' (or \x7a), 0xBC, 0xAF, 0x27, 0x1C
    • carve the required 7zip archive from the SMB pkts captured
    • unfortunately, the archive is password protected :(

    • run tool: chaosreader over alice.pcap to generate a comprehensive HTML report
    • from the webchat log under "GET/POST Report" @ /getpost.html generated
    • clue: PRIVMSG #shmoocon :I_am_Bob: Oh, and my favorite, there's a game going on that blends game hacking, first-person shooting, and role-playing mechanics!
    • clue: PRIVMSG #shmoocon :I_am_Bob: You'll have to check the website yourself ;)
    • checking the website @ http://www.shmoocon.org/ghost_in_the_shellcode as directed
    • exact phrase is indeed found in the webpage description
    • so archive password is Ghost in the Shellcode

    • extract another_message.7z with passwd: Ghost in the Shellcode
    • reveals message.txt, containing the secret: Build It, Belay It, and Bring It On/
    • which happens to refer to the three tracks in the conference
    Carol has used Firefox for Android to search for, browse, and save a particular image.
    A compressed copy of her /data/data/org.mozilla.firefox folder is in the question_assets
    folder, named "org.mozilla.firefox.tgz". Find the serial number of the lens used to take
    the download picture, which is the secret for this question.
    Hint: You may have to use resources outside the org.mozilla.firefox folder to fully
    answer this question.
    • use tool: MozillaCacheView.exe to look for images within the profile cache
    • found 1000.jpg, which is also the startup image when loading the profile /org.mozilla.firefox/files/mozilla/9tnld04f.default via firefox -ProfileManager
    • Harrison Ford @ Comic Con
    • view img EXIF metadata via:
      • exiftool 1000.jpg | egrep "Lens Serial Number"
      • online tool: Jeffrey's Exif Viewer to find the serial # of the lens used to snap the photo
    • secret obtained: 0000c15998
    Dave messed up and deleted his only copy of an MP3 file.
    He'd really appreciate it if you could retrieve it for him
    - look inside svn_2015.dump.gz to get started.
    Once you've recovered the audio file, look at it carefully to find the secret.
    • gunzip svn_2015.dump.gz ‐> svn_2015.dump
    • recreate the SVN repo
      • $ svnadmin create repo
      • $ svnadmin load repo <svn_2015.dump
      • $ svn co "file://`pwd`/repo" .
    • from there, examine the SVN log via svn log
    • ------------------------------------------------------------------------
      r4 | jeff | 2015-01-09 18:11:38 +0800 (Fri, 09 Jan 2015) | 1 line
      Added latest goals
      r3 | jeff | 2015-01-09 18:09:40 +0800 (Fri, 09 Jan 2015) | 1 line
      Oh, drat, I wasn't supposed to include that. Deleting the audio file...
      r2 | jeff | 2015-01-09 18:07:32 +0800 (Fri, 09 Jan 2015) | 1 line
      Funny audio I heard and VISUALIZED
      r1 | jeff | 2015-01-09 18:05:05 +0800 (Fri, 09 Jan 2015) | 1 line
      Added contents of home directory
    • revert to r2 ie. just before the audio file (mp3) was deleted via svn up -r r2
    • play the included shmooster.mp3
    • intelligble part of the audio can be transcripted, and is similar to:
    • Futurama: S1Ep5 Fear of a Bot Planet @ 19990420
      Robot Guard #1: Be you robot or human?
      Leela: Robot, we be.
      Fry: Yep, just two robots out roboting it up.
      Robot Guard #2: Administer the test.
      Robot Guard #1: Which of the following would you prefer? A. a puppy; B. a flower from your sweetie; or C. a large, properly formatted data file? Choose!
      [Fry and Leela discuss in whispers]
      Fry: Is the puppy mechanical in any way?
      Robot Guard #1: No. It is the bad kind of puppy.
      Leela: Then we'll go with that data file.
      Robot Guard #1: Correct.
      Robot Guard #2: The flower would have also been acceptable.
      Robot Guard #1: You may pass.
    • extract the section of the audio after this speech
    • view this part as a spectrogram (using any of the various tools eg. sox, sonic visualiser, spek)
    • notice the embedded QR code ? after performing some image processing cleanup work:
    • decode barcode using tool: OnlineBarcodeReader.com
    • secret obtained: 3e9cd9ea80d80606
    Eve suspects that one of Alice, Bob, or Carol might not be as innocent as they seem.
    She'll need your help to prove it, however. Examine the other three questions and
    their included files. Which user, based off their malicious behavior, might be a Cylon?
    Once you know who it is, find that user's password, which is the secret for this question.
    • couldn't find any user login credentials in Firefox profile cache ie. /../9tnld04f.default from Q2
    • tried alice.pcap from Q1 instead
    • noticed that besides another_message.7z sent over SMB
    • there was also another file not_exactly_inconspicious.exe
    • looking at strings around this binary shows
    • T -> [AP]
        WCE v1.42beta (Windows Credentials Editor) - (c) 2010-2013 Amplia Security - by Hernan Ochoa (hernan@ampliasecurity.com)..Use -h for help...
        Options:  ...-l..List logon sessions and NTLM credentials (default)....-s..Changes NTLM credentials of current logon session......Parameters
        : <UserName>:<DomainName>:<LMHash>:<NTHash>....-r..Lists logon sessions and NTLM credentials indefinitely......Refreshes every 5 seconds if
        new sessions are found......Optional: -r<refresh interval>....-c..Run <cmd> in a new session with the specified NTLM credentials......Parame
        ters: <cmd>....-e..Lists logon sessions NTLM credentials indefinitely......Refreshes every time a logon event occurs....-o..saves all output
         to a file......Parameters: <filename>....-i..Specify LUID instead of use current logon session......Parameters: <luid>....-d..Delete NTLM c
        redentials from logon session......Parameters: <luid>....-a..Use Addresses......Parameters: <addresses>...-f..Force 'safe mode'....-g..Gener
        ate LM & NT Hash......Parameters: <password>....-K..Dump Kerberos tickets to file (unix & 'windows wce' format)...-k..Read Kerberos tickets
        from file and insert into Windows cache...-w..Dump cleartext passwords stored by the digest authentication package...-v..verbose output...
    • Alice was using Windows Credentials Editor to edit the user login credentials on Bob's server!
    • searching for Alice's password via ngrep -q -I alice.pcap | egrep -i alice | sort | uniq, this line appears:
      ....Alice\IRRELEVANT:iamnumbersix..Bob\IRRELEVANT:Carol_is_my_favorite..NETWORK SERVICE\WORKGROUP:..
    • hence, the identity of the Cylon is Alice
    • & the secret (password): iamnumbersix